The strike is thought to have been around 26 miles from the exclusion zone, which remains one of the world’s most radioactive areas after a major nuclear disaster happened there in 1986.
Since the attack, Russian forces have seized control of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, sparking fears of a radiation leak that could cause fallout in Europe.
Videos circulated online show Russian tanks parked in front of the nuclear reactor.
Ukrainian presidential adviser Mykhaylo Podolyak said: “It is impossible to say the Chernobyl nuclear power plant is safe after a totally pointless attack by the Russians.
“This is one of the most serious threats in Europe today.”
Multiple missile attacks have bombarded Ukraine since Putin ordered troops to attack in the early hours of Thursday morning causing Ukrainians to flee en masse from areas likely to be struck.
Boris Johnson has said the UK would respond “decisively” to the attack.
While Joe Biden announced more sanctions against Russia but resisted calls to send US troops to Ukraine, saying the conflict could last for months.
Kiev civilians have been ordered into bomb shelters amid concerns Russia is about to strike the capital as troops seized one of Ukraine’s key airfields just 15 miles away.
Ukraine’s health ministry has reported that so far 57 people have died on the first day of the conflict, while another 169 have been wounded.
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A missile was also captured on camera hitting an airport in Ivano-Frankivsk, and three strikes are believed to have hit the city of Kryvyi Rih.
Additional explosions have also been reported from the direction of Ukraine’s Hostomel airport, an international cargo airport and testing facility.
Meanwhile Turkey, who is a member of NATO, reported one of its ships being hit by a ‘bomb’ off the coast of Odessa causing fears that the war could quickly suck in other states and spark all-out war in Europe.
Putin warned that the West will face “great consequences” if it tries to intervene to stop the invasion.